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1. Como añadir artículos en prestashop (I)

12 septiembre, 2015   |   Jaime MM

Una vez accedemos a nuestro panel de control con el correo y la contraseña proporcionados, vemos las siguientes opciones:



 

Seleccionamos el menú catalogo y dentro de ese menú, productos:



Y se nos abrirá una página con todos los productos que ya hay en la tienda y la posibilidad de agregar más pinchando en añadir nuevo:

 



 

Una vez  hecho clic nos abrirá una pagina como la siguiente:

 



 

Aquí se especifica el nombre del artículo  y más datos referentes a el. Si observamos, a la izquierda, hay una columna con pestañas para añadir más datos referente al articulo como el precio, imágenes, etc…

 



 

Y por último una vez introducidos todos los campos que queremos registrar del articulo, lo guardamos:

 



 

Y con esto habéis agregado vuestro primer articulo en prestashop!

La semana que viene volvemos y profundizaremos un poco más en cada pestaña de edición

Escrito por Jaime MM Author Jaime MM

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    Psychoeducational programs for reducing prison violence: A systematic review

    Article  · January 2017   with   298 Reads DOI: 10.1016/j.avb.2017.01.018 AbstractInstitutional violence presents significant challenges to the accomplishment of legitimate social order in prison. This systematic review examines the effect of psychoeducational programs on violent behaviour in prison. Comprehensive searches of the empirical research literature were conducted to identify randomized and non-randomized studies carried out in the last two decades (1996–2016) that compared psychoeducational programs with treatment as usual (TAU). The content of programs was analysed and classified. The design of the studies was subject to a risk of bias analysis and quality assessment. Violent behaviour in prison was measured by institutional reports, inmate self-reports, observer ratings, or using psychometrically-valid scales. We identified 21 separate studies with considerable variations in program quality and evaluation methodology. The majority of programs adopted a cognitive behavioural or social learning approach. There was limited evidence for the efficacy of these programs, although highly-structured programs showed the most promise. Programs that aimed to integrate their treatment ethos into the institutional regime and target specific criminogenic risks also produced evidence of effectiveness in reducing institutional violence. The current evidence base does not provide a clear answer to the ‘what works’ question in reducing institutional violence. However, there is evidence that some approaches are more successful than others and this should guide future program design and evaluation.

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    Join for free Psychoedu cational pro grams for reduc ing prison viol ence: Asystemati c reviewKatherin e M. Auty ⁎ , Aiden Co pe, Alison L iebling Prisons Rese arch Centre , Institut e of Criminol ogy, Cambr idge Univer sity, Englan d, United Ki ngdomabstract article info Article his tory:Received 1 1 August 2016Received in revi sed form 17 January 20 17Accepted 18 Ja nuary 2017Available o nline xxxxInstituti onal violen ce present s signi fi cant ch allenges to the acco mplishme nt of legitimate so cial order in priso n. This systemat ic review examin es the effect of psyc hoeducatio nal program s on violent behavi our in prison. Co m-prehensive searches of th e empirical research liter ature were conducted to iden tify randomized and non-r an-domized studies carri ed out in the last two decades (1996 – 2016) that compared psycho educational progr ams with treatment as usua l (TAU). The content of pr ograms was analysed an d classi fi ed. The desi gn of the studies was subject to a ris k of bias analysi s and quality ass essment. Vio lent behavio ur in prison was mea sured by insti-tutional reports , inmate self-re ports, observer ra tings, or using ps ychometrically-v alid scales. We id enti fi ed 21 separate studies with consi derable variatio ns in program quality and evaluati on methodology. The majo rity ofprograms a dopted a cogn itive behavi oural or so cial learnin g approach.There was limited evid ence for the ef fi ca- cy of these progra ms, althoug h highly-stru ctured progra ms showed the most promise. Pro grams that aime d tointegrat e their treat ment ethos int o the instit utional regi me and targe t speci fi c crimi nogenic ris ks also produce d evidence of effect iveness in reducing in stitutional vi olence. The current ev idence base does not pro vide a clearanswer to the ‘ what works ’ ques tion in reduc ing instit utional vio lence. How ever, there is eviden ce that some a p- proaches ar e more success ful than other s and this shoul d guide futur e program des ign and evalua tion.© 2017 Elsevier Lt d. All rights re served.Keywords:Institut ional violen cePrisonsPhysical a ssaultsVerbal ass aultsSocial orderIntervent ionEffectiv eness1. Introdu ctionViolence is a pervas ive featu re of the soci al contex t of prison l ife, yetas Bottoms (1999) points out, its s tudy presen ts a parad ox, as the pri son environm ent is expe rienced on a d ay to day basi s by prisoner s and staffas relative ly safe. Viol ence in prison s impacts negat ively on the de liveryof a consist ent daily regime and the refore und ermines e fforts to p rovideprograms, education an d work activities for inmates as we ll as posingdirect risks. In this sense, efforts to reduce prison violence are crucialto the maintenance of everyday social order. Following Ga don, Johnstone, and Co oke (2006a, p. 515) ,w ed e fi ne institutiona l violence as “ the actual, attempted or thre atened harm towards anoth er person within the institu tional setting which may in clude physical, verbaland/or sexual aggr ession. ” Accu rately measur ing instituti onal violence poses several problems: institutional record keeping can vary widelyand although most in stitutions now use comput erized systems, thisdata often comes from in dividual prisoner fi les maintain ed on reside n- tial units. Fu rthermore, it i s reasonable to as sume that a degre e of staffdiscretion applies to the reporting of vi olent incidents. As Davies (1982) points out, viol ent acts in prison are on a spectrum rangi ng from pushing to assaul t with a weapon and prisoners ma y bedisciplined variously for any of these incidents. Mindful of these con-cerns, re searcher s often use psychometr ically v alidated me asures o f vi-olent behaviour, either in place of, or to supplement, institutional data.Research into the deve lopment and evaluation of co rrectional pro-grams to reduce prison violence is expanding rapidly against a back-ground of budget cuts, austerity measures, increases in violence, andthe drastic pace and s cale of change in criminal just ice systems inmost count ries. This has inv olved the dev elopment of t reatment phi los-ophies an d multimoda l program s intended t o reduce vio lence in inst itu-tional settings . Typically these progra ms include elements of s ociallearning and cognitive behavioural approaches app lied to individualand group pro gram sessions , homework , journal entr ies, peer supp ort,and also speci fi c criminogenic needs, suc h as substance misuse. Many have questioned the effective ness of correctional treatme nt programs( Lab & Whitehead, 1990; Sechrest, 2013 ), ye t others have maintained that trea tment is mo st effectiv e when offen ders are at tending p rogramssuited to them ( Andrew s et al., 1990 ). Successful ly administering a treatment progr am within a co rrectiona l facilit y can also be pa rticular lydif fi cult when th e prison reg ime is in con fl i ct with the treat ment ethos of the progr ams ( Lanza -Kaduce, P arker, & Tho mas, 1999, p. 43 ). The dominanc e of behaviour ally-orient ed programs, su ch as cogni-tive behavioural ther apy (CBT) has recently be en called into question.It is now recognized that the effectivenes s of well-established modelsof treatment can decline over long periods ( Johnsen & Friborg , 2015 ). Newer approaches tha t utilise some very differe nt techniques areAggressio n and Violent Beha vior xxx (2017 ) xxx – xxx ⁎ Corresponding author at: Institute of Criminology, Cambridge University, Sidgwick Avenue, Cambr idge CB3 9DA, Unit ed Kingdom.E-mail add ress: ka404@ cam.ac.uk ( K.M. Auty). AVB-0108 9; No of Pages 18http://dx .doi.org/ 10.1016/ j.avb.2017 .01.0181359-1789 /© 2017 Elsevie r Ltd. All right s reserved.Contents li sts availa ble at Science Direct Aggressio n and Violent Be haviorPlease cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 being studied to determine their effectiveness in reducing violent be-haviour in prisons . A recent systematic re view and meta-analysis( Auty, Co pe, & Liebl ing, 2015 ) re vealed that y oga and mindfu lness med- itation p rograms del ivered in cu stodial se ttings had a positive ef fect onthe psychol ogical wellb eing (Cohen' s d = 0.46), and behaviou ral func- tioning of prisoners ( d = 0.30). Programs of longe r duration had a slightly larger positive effect on behavioural functioning ( d = 0.424), compared w ith short er, more int ensive pro grams ( d =0 . 4 1 8 ) . Research in this ar ea is gathering pace . Studies of treatmen t withintherapeutic communities are accumul ating quickly, with reduction ininstitutional vi olence being one of several p rogram aims ( Blagden, Winder, & Hames, 2016 ; Dietz, O'Connell, & Scarp itti, 2003; Gillig an &Lee, 2005 ). Another recent development in the empirical literature is the evaluation of programs to reduce violence in pri son that originateoutside the criminal justic e sector, such as life coaching ( Smyth, 2014 )and life skills training ( Clark & Duwe, 2015 ), which focus on leadership skills, and are far less stigmatizing for offenders than traditional pro-grams. Another two impo rtant areas of growing in terest for prison re-searchers and poli cy makers are prison peer men torship schemes,bullying pr eventionprograms ( HMIP, 201 6 ) and faith- based correc tion- al programs ai med at reducing v iolence ( Du we & King, 2013 ). There is some evidence th at prison misconduct serve s as a reason-able proxy for risk of reof fending ( Gendreau, Gogg in, & Law, 1997; Hill, 1985; Homant & Witk owski, 2003; Schnur, 1949 ; Zamble &Porpori no, 1988 ). Th erefore , policy and p ractice ha ve recent ly changed in a more conc erted effo rt to addres s the level o f violence i n prisons i nEngland and Wales. A join t protocol has been devel oped by the PrisonService, Crown Prosecu tion Service and the Associatio n of Chief PoliceOf fi cers (AC PO). Prose cution of the pe rpetrators of assaults in pr ison is now established as stan dard practice, rather th an the offence beingdealt with by an in-house adjudication, unless there is a good reasonnot to (Minist ry of Justice , 16th Novemb er 2014).1.1. Psychoeducational programs to reduce institutional misconduct andviolenceSeveral system atic reviews an d meta-analyse s have focused on theimpact of co rrectio nal treatm ent progra ms on insti tutiona l miscondu ct( French & Gen dreau, 200 6; Keyes, 199 6; Morgan & Flor a, 2002 ). Rec ent- ly, the focus has shi fted to systematic ally analysi ng the situationa l andcultural factors in prison that may impact upon institutional violence(J.M. Byr ne & Hummer , 2008; Gad on, Johns tone, & Coo ke, 2006b ). 1.2. Previou s research on th eir effectiv enessFrench and Gen dreau (2006) co nducted a met a-analys is to evaluat e the effectiveness of correctional treatment for reducing institutionalmisconduct. Interventions were classi fi ed as behaviour al, non-behav- ioural, or e ducatio nal/vocat ional. Th ey updated p revious me ta-analy sesby Keyes (1996) and Robert D. Morgan and Flora (2002) . Previously, Keyes (1996 ) had found t hat behavi oural pro grams were more eff ective than non-behaviour al programs in reducin g misconduct, and thathigher qu ality stud ies and youn ger samp le populat ions produc ed large reffects siz es. Morga n and Flora (2002) d id not produc e a separat e effect size for priso n misconduct s but also found that be havioura l approache swere most effe ctive. Frenc h and Gendre au (2006) exte nded the knowl - edge accumul ated in these tw o reviews from 32 st udies with 46 effe ctsizes, to 68 stud ies with 104 effe ct sizes.French and Gend reau (2006 ) note that ‘ the majority o f studies were publishe d before much was kno wn about the pr inciples of effe ctive cor-rectiona l treatment ’ and that almo st invariab ly, informa tion was not re- ported on the priso n context (e.g., crowding, instit utional climate)within whi ch the trea tment pro grams oper ated. The au thors als o reportthat ‘ essenti al inmate charac teristi cs such as offenderrisk level and mis- conduct history were a lmost always missing ’ ( Fren ch and Gendreau (2006: 206) . Th is limited atte mpts to exami ne moderato rs of program effects. Similarly, the incomplete re porting of non-signi fi cant fi nding s limited the estimation of treatment effects. Aside from these limitingfactors , the authors conc lude that beha vioural pr ograms yield l arger ef-fect size s than non- behaviou ral or educa tional/ vocation al program s andare theref ore more eff ective whe n attempti ng to reduce prison m iscon-duct. Interestingly, this meta-analysis paralleled fi ndings from meta- analyses co nducted on the e ffects of pro grams on recidi vism. Over all ef-fect sizes fr om the behavio ural progr ams were simil ar to the effect tha tAndrews et al. (1990) found when investigat ing the impact of behav- ioural prog rams on recid ivism ( Frenc h and Gendre au (2006) . Ke y simi- larities were noted in re lation to moderating factors , such as theapparent importance of therapeuti c integrity, treatment dosage, andseparat e housing of treat ment group inm ates. The anal ysis also show edthat the program s which had the larges t impact on prison misc onduct‘ also generated lower recidivism rates ’ ( French and Gendreau (2006, p. 210) . The authors con clude that this analysis s hould direct re- searchers to condu cting primary studies wh ich address some of theproblemati c areas of program desi gn and delivery high lighted by theirmeta-ana lysis.Gadon et al. (2 006b) repo rt on a systemat ic review on the impac t of situational risk factors on institutional violence in prisons and closedpsychiat ric setting s. They ident i fi ed 48 studi es as suitablefor the review. The author s had intended to cond uct a meta-a nalysis, but we re unableto do so due to the natu re of researc h in this area , including thedifferentmethodological approaches adopted by each study. The in-depth sys-tematic review of st udies conducted in a priso n setting (n = 21)grouped the studies into seven situational variables: prison structu re,staff features, temporal aspects, location, crowding, management andprograms av ailabl e for prisone rs. The aut hors found th at risk fac tors re-lated to inst itutional v iolence were : prisoner s' security l evel, busy tho r-oughfares, under-staffed areas, prisoner mix, staff experience, certaindays of the w eek (e.g.) , manage ment appro aches and r elations hips be-tween staff .Therefore, this re view aims to evaluate the e vidence base byassessing the effect iveness of programs deli vered in an institutionalcontext to reduce violence. Many jurisdicti ons state a commitment toevidenc e-based pro gramming an d this review may he lp to incorpora tethe latest research fi ndings into current p ractice. Cu rrently, the in terna- tional evidence-base has accelerated beyond practice. The use of evi-dence-based programming includes a co mmitment to rigorousmonitoring of all programs to ensure th at they are delivered to a highstandard. Reporting guide lines for systematic reviews are now com -monplace ( Li berati et al ., 2009; Mohe r, Liberat i, Tetzlaff , Altman, & Th e PRISMA Group, 2009 ) resulting in greater standardization and higher quality repo rting of studi es. Therefo re, this study ai ms to update previ -ous reviews focusin g on methodologically high-q uality studies thathave been published in th e last 20 years and speci fi cally a ddressing the effectiveness of psychoeducational programs for redu cing institu-tional violence.2. Methods2.1. Search st rategySearches were per formed in a range of approp riate databases(PubMed, Ap plied Social Sciences Inde x and Abstract s (ASSIA) , Web ofScience, th e Cochran e Database of S ystemati c Reviews, t he Campbell Li -brary, Ze toc, Embase , Medline, P sycINFO ). These wer e selected bas ed onthe authors' previous exper ience of conducting systema tic searches inrelated topic areas. Systematic searches were created by combining aseries of keywords in the most appropriate ma nner for each data base.Keywords were conceived of in the following groups: ‘ Type of study ’ ( ‘ Experiment* ’ , ‘ Quasi ’ , ‘ Evalu ation ’ , ‘ Random ’ , ‘ RCT ’ , ‘ Trial ’ ); ‘ Int erven- tion type ’ ( ‘ Program* ’ , ‘ In tervention ’ , ‘ Correcti onal ’ , ‘ Skills training ’ , ‘ CBT ’ , ‘ Behavio* ’ , ‘ Behaviour ’ , ‘ Treatment ’ , ‘ Mindfulness ’ ); ‘ Population ’( ‘ Prison* ’ , ‘ Secure psychiatric unit ’ , ‘ YOI ’ , ‘ Young offender institution ’ , 2 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 ‘ Jail ’ ); ‘ Outcomes ’ ( ‘ Violence ’ , ‘ As sault ’ , ‘ Attack ’ , ‘ Fighti ng ’ ). Searches were restric ted to English lan guage abstrac ts. Test search es were com-pleted to assess t he number of relevan t studies that woul d be found. Ifsearching for a basic ‘ population ’ or ‘ outcome ’ keyword returned few studies, t hese groups would be sear ched per ke yword in a simp le man-ner. Howev er, keywo rds were typi cally se arched for i n each datab ase inthe four gro ups outli ned above, b efore the gr oups were co mbined. S pe-ci fi c combi nations de pended on th e number of st udies the ini tial group searches returned . For instance, some data bases returned very larg enumbers of studies fo r the more general keywor ds in the ‘ type of study ’ and ‘ intervention ty pe ’ groups. In these cases the gr ouped terms were comb ined in a systematic ma nner which allo wed a degreeof cross-ref erencing o f results.1Further s tudies wer e screened fo r inclusio n upon reco mmendati onsof experts in the fi eld, as outlined in Fig. 1 . Searches were also conducted in additional papers that were not eligible for inclusion but appearedpromisi ng for furthe r leads, su ch as review s of the liter ature. The o nlineresearch pro fi les of several researchers were als o searched to identify additional studi es. Further searche s were conducted using Go ogle andGoogle Scholar.2.2. Inclus ion criter iaAll searche s were limited to the pe riod 1996 – 2016. This time p eriod allowed l imited ove rlap with previou s related re views whi le ensuri ng amanagea ble number o f studies to sc reen. Alt hough this w as a relativ elyarbitrar y cut-off date , it also exclude d older studies w hich, based on theauthors' experience, tend to be of lower methodological quality. Thissearch strategy yielded 3917 studies in the initial searches. A total of79 studies (inclu ding duplicate s) were saved into End note referenc ingsoftware fo llowing scr eening of abst ract and bibl iographi c informati on.After any d uplicate s were remov ed, 58 stud ies remaine d. Screen ing wasbased on the foll owing inclus ion criter ia (as re fl ecte d in the abov e listed keywords ): (1) studie s must be experi mental or quas i-exper imental indesign (inc luding a cont rol/comp arison gro up); (2) studi es must exam-ine a psychoe ducationa l programthat speci fi cally atte mpts to reducevi- olence in a pris on, young offen der instit ution, or sec ure psychiat ric unit;(3) outcomes examined must be measures of violence committed byprisoner s/inmate s/patie nts. One revie wer (AC) asses sed the full text ar-ticles for inclusion or exclusion. A second reviewer (KA) resolved anyuncertai nties and co ntacted co rrespo nding autho rs to prov ide clarify inginformation, where po ssible. This process res ulted in 65 studies beingexcluded. The most commo n reason for exclusion was the study notreportin g a violence me asure at all, or independent ly of other sca les ormeasures (n = 29). Ten studies had no cle ar comparison group and12 studies di d not evalua te a psychoe ducation al program . The remain-ing exclud ed studie s did not cons ider a spe ci fi c program or int erventi on (n = 5), were r eviews (n = 4) , were not pris on-based (n = 1) or werecategorized as ‘ othe r ’ reasons for exclus ion (n = 4). These reason s for exclusio n of studies w ere record ed and are sho wn in Table 1 .2.3. Data extra ctionA data codin g proforma2was designe d to extrac t the relevan t infor-mation from the papers. In formation on each study was organ izedunder the following head ings: full referenc e, study population/s ampleand context, pro gram and duration, pr ogram descripti on, study objec-tive, outco mes and measu res, study desi gn, unit of analy sis, and stati sti-cal analyse s. The form w as piloted by the coder s (KA & AC) on a ran domsample of approxim ately 10% (n = 6) of the unique pa pers remainingafter screening the abstrac t and bibliographic infor mation and any in-consist encies were re solved by the fi rst author. The coders then extract- ed the relevant data fr om the studies in July 2016 . Each completedcoding sheet was reviewed by th e other coder and inconsistenc ieswere discussed and resolved.2.4. Criter ia for determin ing high qual ity study desi gnThe quality of stud y design was rated usin g the University ofMaryland's Scienti fi cM e t h o d sS c a l e( Farrington, Go ttfredson, Sherman , & Welsh, 200 2; Sherma n et al., 1998 ), which class i fi es evalu- ation studi es accordin g to fi ve levels fro m 1 = weakest to 5 = highest level of ove rall inter nal validi ty: (1) Correl ational ev idence; (2 ) No sta-tistical co ntrol for se lection bi as but some ki nd of compa rison; (3) Mo d-erate statistical contro l; (4) Strong statistic al control; and (5)Randomized experiment (summarized in Welsh & Farrington, 2001 ).Only studies r ated as equiva lent to level thre e or higher were inc ludedin this review. So, as a min imum, all studies compare d the programgroup to a control gro up, including pre -post and experi mental-contr olcompari sons.2.5. Criter ia for assessin g program quali tyBased on an extensive review of the ‘ what works ’ literature, Lösel (1995, pp. 33 – 34) lis ts principles or characteri stics of effective pro- grams, man y of which have been con fi rmed in met a-analy ses; (1) The - oretically sound c onceptualization of pr ogram and evaluation, (2)Dynamic assessment of th e offender's risk, (3) Inten sive service forhigh risks, (4) Ap propriate targeting on th e offender's criminoge nicneeds, (5) Different iation of criminogenic from non-crimin ogenicneeds, (6) Improvin g thinking, social skil ls, and self-control mec ha-nisms, (7) Applying reinfo rcement contingencies, (8) Stre ngthening‘ natural ’ protective facto rs, (9) Neutralizing criminoge nic social net- works, (10) Matchin g of offender characteris tics with the programand staff, (11) Matching of staff with type of prog ram, (12) Thoroughselection, training, and supervision of staff, (13) Improving quality ofstaff-p risoner rela tionship s, (14) Encour aging staff mo tivation an d con-sistency, (15) Assessmen t of adequate program implemen tation, (16)Realizing high program int egrity, (17) Improving insti tutional climateand positive setting characteristics, (18)Reducing negative incarcera-tion effects, (19) Monitor ing of offender change in cri minogenicneeds, and (20) Pro viding for meas ures of relapse pr evention. We sy s-tematically evaluated program quality, according to these principles.Each item w as rated as 0 = no t present, 1 = par tly prese nt, or 3 = pres -ent. An over all score (o ut of a total o f 40) was produ ced for eac h study.2.5.1. Asse ssing risk of bia sAn assessment of study selection bi as was made according to therecommendations of The Cochrane Co llaboration ( Higgins & Gr een, 2011 ). Standard risk of bias assessments wa s undertaken: sequence generati on (select ion bias), al locatio n sequence co ncealme nt (select ionbias), blinding of particip ants and personnel (perf ormance bias),blinding of outco me assessment (d etection bias), in complete outcom edata (attrition bias) , and selective outcome report ing (reporting bias).This required a judg ement to be made about spe ci fi c aspects of the study on the basi s of the informa tion provid ed in each pape r. Each po-tential ri sk of bias was rated; ‘ low ’ , ‘ high ’ ,o r ‘ unclear ’ .W h e ni n f o r m a t i o n was unclear or missing attem pts to contact correspondin g authors forclari fi ca tion were ma de. 31Full detaile d logs of each sea rch and combi nation of keyw ords (inc luding all ret urnedpapers and da tes of searche s) are availa ble upon requ est from the co rrespondi ng author.2A copy of the dat a coding prof orma is availa ble from the fi rst autho r upon request. 3Detailed information on the asses sment of risk of bias and supporting eviden ce isavailabl e from the correspo nding autho r.3 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 3. Results3.1. Descrip tion of includ ed studiesInformat ion on the key st udy charact eristics o f the 21 include d stud-i e si ss h o w ni n Table 2 . Effect sizes (Cohen's d ) were calculated wh ere suf fi cient informati on was provided. In the la st 20 years, interest in the effectivenes s of psychoeducational pr ograms in reducing prisonviolence ha s been fairl y consisten t. On average, on e study that me t thecriteriafor inclusion was publi shed each year.The sample of 21 includedstudies camefrom 20 peer reviewed publi cations. Th irteen stud ies wereof program s in the USA ( Armst rong, 2002 ; Baro, 1999 ; Dietz et al ., 2003; Goldstein et al., 2007; Hogan et al., 2012; Lamb ert et al., 2007; Lee &Gilligan, 2005; Li au et al., 2004; Maglinger et a l., 2013; Morrissey,1997; Prendergast et al., 200 1; Walrath, 2001; Welsh et al., 20 07 ), Three were set in the UK ( Evershed et al., 2003; Jotangia et al., 2015 ;Fig. 1. Flow char t of study sele ction proces s. 4 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 Table 1Excluded stud ies.Author/date Reason for exclusion and commentsNo control group (10)Belfrage, Fransson, and Strand(2004)No control group.Ashcroft (2015) No control group; also only reports “ proven adjudications ” , “ reported incidents of misconduct ” and “ recorded incidents of self-harm ” .Friedmann, Melnick, Jiang, andHamilton (2008)No control group.Messina, Braithwaite, Calhoun, andKubiak (2016)No control group.Patrick (1998) No control group. Woo et al. (2016) No control group. Taylor, Novaco, and Brown (2016) No control group. N. J. Wilson and Tamatea (2013) No control group. Violent misconducts reported on p. 502 in relation to follow uptesting; otherwise, only “ VRS ” is used to assess violence - a measure that is partassessment of violence and part riskassessment.Tew, Dixon, Harkins, and Bennett(2012)No control group.Novaco, 1994 No control group. No separate violence measure (29)Cullen et al. (2012) No violence outcome measure - only anger. Di Placido, Simon, Witte, Gu, andWong (2006)No speci fi c violence outcome - violence part of “ major ” institutional offences but not separated out.Koch et al. (2015) Only measures of aggression (as an impulse), not violence.Kubiak, Kim, Fedock, and Bybee(2015)No measure of violence - anger expression isclosest in this study.D. L. L. Polaschek, Wilson, Townsend, and Daly (2005)Recidivism data is outcome - communityfollow up.Polaschek, Yesberg, Bell, Casey, andDickson (2016)Recidivism data for outcome.Queralt, Caballero, Casals, Navarro,and Serra (1997)Violence not measured separately -disciplinary breaches only- also, seems like alow quality study.Rees-Jones, Gudjonsson, and Young(2012)No violence outcome measure.Schippers, Marker, and DeFuentes-Merillas (2001)Only aggression measured - “ 40-itemself-report questionnaire measures bothdirect and indirect aggressions in twosubscales ” .Serin, Gobeil, and Preston (2009) Institutional misconducts and aggression measured but violence not reportedseparately. However, major misconductsdiscussed separately.D. Shelton, Sampl, Kesten, Zhang, and Trestman (2009)“ Disciplinary tickets ” reported but no speci fi c offence reported. Stewart, Gabora, Kropp, and Lee(2014)No violence outcome - only risk factors andscenarios are used.Tapp, Fellowes, Wallis, Blud, andMoore (2009)No violence outcome - only the “ clinicaloutcomes in routine evaluation ” , “ thepsychological inventory of criminal thinkingstyles ” and “ social problem solving inventory ” are used. Taylor, Novac, Gillmer, Robertson,and Thorne (2005)No violence outcome - STAXI and Wardanger rating scales (WARS) used - WARS is ameasure of patient behaviour over theprevious seven days but not con fi ned to violence and no speci fi c incidents are noted. Walters (1999) Only “ disciplinary reports ” are reported as an outcome.Yip et al. (2013) Uses the “ disruptive behaviour and social problems scale ” (DBSP).S. Young, Chick, and Gudjonsson (2010)Also uses the DBSP scale (see Yip et al., 2013 ). Bensimon, Einat, and Gilboa (2015) Uses STAXI measures - anger only, not aggression/violence.Bohus et al. (2004) Self-harm and STAXI reported but not aggression/violence.Camp, Daggett, Kwon, andKlein-Saffran (2008)p. 392 - misconducts grouped as too few ofone particular offence/typeTable 1 ( continued ) Author/date Reason for exclusion and commentsReisig (1998) Main results reported as “ serious disorder ” and “ less serious disorder ” ; analysis of constructs breaks down to assaults. Study isexcluded due to the subjective data andstudy design.J.M. Byrne and Hummer (2008) Violence is reported separately but only for one site. There are nine sites in total. All ninesites have a different combination of culturechange interventions.Glowa-Kollisch et al. (2014) Says in abstract that violence is reduced but violence is not measured separately.Incorvaia and Kirby (1997) Drug use is outcome. Kinlock, O'Grady, and Hanlon(2003)Major infractions not violence.Langan and Pelissier (2001) No violence outcome. Morgan, Winterowd, and Fuqua(1999)Only disciplinary reports used as anoutcome.Shelton, Kesten, Zhang, andTrestman (2011)No violence outcome. Risks scores.Trupin, Stewart, Beach, and Boesky(2002)Behaviours turned into composite scores;(aggression + parasuicide + classroomdisruption).No intervention or program (5)Bierie (2012) No intervention - comparison of prison conditions, although violence is used as anoutcome measure.Gonçalves, Dirkzwager, Martins,Gonçalves, and Van der Laan(2016)Longitudinal study of infractions andcorrelates.Innes (1997) No program. Peterson-Badali and Koegl (2002) No program. Ros, Van der Helm, Wissink, Stams,and Schaftenaar (2013)No program.Reviews (4)S.C Wong et al. (2005) Studies mentioned, but no data. McMurran (2013) Review paper (book chapter). Muntingh (2009) No control group. McGuire (2008) Review. Not prison-based (1)Baglivio, Jackowski, Grenwald, andWolf (2014)Not prison-based.Not a psycho-educational program (12)Mela and Depiang (2016) Clozapine study and community-based follow up.Meyer et al. (2015) Omega 3 correlational study, looking at relationship between omega 3 levels andaggression.Zaalberg, Nijman, Bulten, Stroosma,and van der Staak (2010)Supplements paper. Outcome measure is“ aggressive and rule breaking behaviour ” . Byrne and Kelly (2006) Prison culture change program. D'Alessio, Flexon, and Stolzenberg(2013)Measures conjugal visits and sexualviolence.Gesch, Hammond, Hampson, Eves,and Crowder (2002)Vitamin supplement study, also measure ofinstitutional infractions rather than speci fi cacts of violence.Hensley, Koscheski, and Tewksbury(2002)Conjugal visits.Lucas et al. (2014) Not a program - condom dispensing machines.Morris (2015) Solitary con fi nement is treatment variable. Wong and Gordon (2013) A description of the programme - features a “ synopsis of outcome evaluations of VRP ” . Chamberlain (2012) Measures relationship between prisoner needs (i.e. substance use programmes) andmisconducts, not the impact of program.Shniderman and Solberg (2015) Discussion of the use of dietary supplements and prescribed psychiatric medication toenable behaviour change in subjects.Other (4)Kubiak, Fedock, Tillander, Kim, andBybee (2014)Feasibility study.Johnson et al. (2016) Study protocol. Polaschek and Kilgour (2013) Not an evaluation - description of 5 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 C. Wilson et al., 2013 ), two cam e from Australia ( Miller, 19 96; Watt & Howells, 1999 ), and one study each came from Canada (R. C. Serin et al., 2009 ), and the Nether lands ( Hoog steder et al. , 2014 ). Of the 21 included studies, fi ve were random ized controlled trials, and 16 were non-ra ndomized quasi-experi ments. As previously de -scribed, only methodologically high- quality studies were consideredfor inclusi on in the rev iew, and the re was cons iderabl e variatio n in sci-enti fi c method scores . For the majority of studi es (16) their internal consistenc y was rated as level 3 (mod erate statist ical control) , and theremainder (5) were rated as level 5 (a randomized experiment). Theparticipants in the majori ty of studies were males (17). Two studiesevaluate d programs that w ere speci fi ca lly designe d for female inm ates ( Goldstein et al., 2007; Jotangia et al., 201 5 ) and two further studies had both male and female participants ( Hoogsteder et al., 2014; Liau et al., 2004 ). The number of participants in each study varied considerably; sixstudies analysed data fo r less than 50 participants ( Evershed et a l., 2003; Goldste in et al., 2007 ; Jotangia et al ., 2015; Miller , 1996; Watt &Howells, 1999 ), fi ve stud ies had between 50 and 100 part icipants ( Hoogsteder et al., 2 014; Maglinger et al., 20 13; Morrissey, 1997; Walrath, 2001 ;C . Wilson et al., 2013 ), three studies invo lved between 100 and 200 participa nts ( Baro, 1999; Lambert et a l., 2007; Lee & Gilligan, 2005 ), three studies in volved between 200 and 300 partici- pants ( Armst rong, 200 2; Hogan et al. , 2012; Liau et al ., 2004 ), an d two studies had samples larg er than 500 ( Dietz et al., 2003; Wels h et al., 2007 ). One o f these stud ies had the ad vantage of dr awing the ir sample from a therape utic communi ty (TC), ( Die tz et al., 2003 ) wi th relativel y stable and co mplian t populati ons and the ot her study m ade use of intu -itional record data only ( Welsh et al., 2007 ). One stu dy did not report the number of part icipant s in the study ( Prend ergast et a l., 2001 ). Among the 21 included studies there were 17 different programsevaluate d to reduce priso n violence, as thr ee program s were evaluate dmore than once: the A lternatives to Violence Pr oject ( Miller, 1996; Walrath, 2001 ), Ski lls Training for Aggre ssion Control (STAC ) ( Watt & Howells , 1999 ) 4, and the Cog nitive Hou sing Appro ach: New Goal s Envi-ronment (C HANGE) prog ram ( Hogan et al., 20 12; Lambe rt et al., 2007 ). The CHANGE program wa s a modi fi ed version of the Stra tegies for Thinking Productively (STP) progra m evaluated in an earlier includedstudy ( Baro , 1999 ). Data on violent behaviour in prison was collected from two mainsources: from of fi cia l institutional records ( either computerized or fi le-based) , and from quest ionnaire me asures. The qu estionnaire me a- sures used seve ral differ ent methods to co llect data: se lf-repor t, profes-sionally-rated , peer-rated, and ratings m ade by an independentobserver. Violent behaviour in prison was meas ured most often usinginstitutional records ( Armstrong, 2002; Bar o, 1999; Dietz et al., 2003; Hogan et al., 2012 ; Hoogsteder et al., 2014; Lambert et al., 2007; Lee &Gilligan, 2005; L iau et al., 2004; Maglinger et al., 2 013; Morrissey,1997; Prendergas t et al., 2001 ;R .C . Serin et al., 2009; We lsh et al., 2007 ;C . Wilson et al., 201 3 ). Most researc hers repor ted using comp ut- erized syste ms to collect thi s data.Data on viole nt behaviour w as also captur ed through t he use of self-report scales (an d subscales) with prove n psychometric properti es.Most frequently used was the Aggressio n Questionnaire (AQ: Buss & Warren, 200 0 ), which was used in two stud ies: Goldst ein et al. (2007) and R. C. Serin et al. (2 009) and the Nova co Anger Scale (N AS: Novaco, 1994 ), which was als o used in two studi es ( Jotangia et al., 2015 ; Watt & Howells, 1999 ). Several other measures were also used, such as the Young Adult Self-R eport Form (YASR: Achenba ch, 1991 ), as used by Liau et al. (2004) , the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory (STAXI: Spielberge r, 1991 ), (used i n; Miller, 1996 ), the Modi fi ed Ove rt Aggres- sion Scale (MOA S: Kay, Wolkenf eld, & Murrill , 1988 ) used i n Watt and Howells (199 9) and fi nally Jotang ia et al. (2015) also used th e Disrup- tive Behaviour an d Social Problem Scale (DBSP : Susan Young, Gudjons son, Ball, & L am, 2003 ) . Data from these me asures was onl y in- cluded in the review if the an alysis clearly pre sented results for a sub-scale of the measure that captured violent behaviour. Unfortunat ely,in practice, man y studies did not presen t data for each subscale andwere ther efore excl uded (see Table 1 ).On one occasio n, a self-repo rt questionn aire was desi gned by the re-search team (f or example; Wal rath, 2001 ), an d in this insta nce the au- thors provide data on th e questionnaires' inter nal consistency(Cronbach 's alpha). In anoth er study aggressi on was measured usi ng aprofessional-rated ris k assessment tool: the ‘ Dealing with Anger ’ sub - scale of the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth (SAVRY:Borum, Bartel, & Forth, 2002; Lodewijks, Doreleijers, de Ruiter, & Witde-Grouls, 2006 ). Peer-rated measures were less frequently used; in Goldstein et al. (2007 ) the Peer Nomination Me asure for Relational and Physica l Aggressi on ( Crick , 1995; Crick & Grotp eter, 1995; We rner & Crick, 1999 ). Fi nally, one study ( E vershed et al., 2003 ) collected da ta on violent behaviour using an observational measure (frequency andseriousness) that wa s blindly rated by an independe nt psychologystudent.Follow- up periods w ere often qui te short. E leven studi es had no fol -low-up period and col lected post-interv ention data immed iately afterthe program had fi nish ed ( Armstrong, 2002; Diet z et al., 2003; Goldstein et al., 2007 ; Hoogsteder et al., 2014 ; Lee & Gilligan, 2005;Liau et al., 2004; Maglinger et al., 2013; Mor rissey, 1997; Prendergastet al., 2001; Watt & H owells, 1999 ). For two studi es, the longest fol- low-up period was three months post-program ( Jotangia et al., 2015; Miller, 1996 ). A foll ow-up period of six month s post-program was most common ( fi ve studies; Hogan et al., 2012; Lambert et al., 2007 ; R. C. Serin et al., 2009 ; Walrath, 2001; We lsh et al., 2007 ). Tw o studies had a follow-up peri od of nine months ( Evershed et al., 2003 ;C . Wilson et al., 2013 ) , and only one study collecte d data 12 months after the prog ram was comple ted ( Baro, 19 99 ). 3.1.1. Risk of bia s assessmen tRisk of bias can be present in both study design and methodology.The fi ve rando mized contr olled trials th at were includ ed in the revie w ( Armstrong, 2002; Goldstein et al., 2007; Hogan et al., 2012; Lambert et al., 2007 ; Liau et al., 2004 ) sho uld address tw o important fo rms of se- lection bias: ensuring random sequence generation (that alloca tion ofindividuals to treatment or control groups is done according to a ran-dom proce ss) and allo cation conc ealment (t hat the all ocation s equenceis unpredictable by researchers or parti cipants). In practice, four RCTsreportedsuccessful random se quence gene ration. Ar mstrong (20 02) re- ported th at only 83% of pa rticipa nts were assi gned as ran domized . Ran-domizat ion was ineff ective due to some indiv iduals re fusing trea tmentand others be ing placed in theincorrect group and st aff deciding a gainstmoving th em due to ethi cal concer ns. Alloca tion conce alment wa s suc-cessfully ac hieved by two of the RCTs ( Go ldstein et al., 20 07; Hogan et al., 2012 ) . In the remaini ng three RCTs it was not cl ear how random iza- tion had tak en place ( La mbert et al ., 2007; Li au et al., 200 4 ), or it was re- ported as not hav ing taken plac e correctly ( A rmstrong , 2002 ). Non-rando mized quasi-exp eriments oft en have a much higher riskof bias. Report s of problems in impl ementingthe desired study method -ology were fairly commonplace in thi s group of included studies. Thiscould account fo r the heterogen eity of fi ndings repo rted in the studies (see Table 2 ) and also has important implicat ions for the validity of these fi ndings. Four fur ther assessments of selec tion bias were under- taken (performance bias, detection bia s, attrition bias, reporting bias)Table 1 ( continued ) Author/date Reason for exclusion and commentsprogramme and its history.Howells et al. (2002) No data. 4Reports res ults from two sep arate studie s.6 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 Table 2Characteristics and results of included studies.Citation Participants and setting Program Outcomes and measures Follow-up period Results and effect sizes (Cohen's d )Randomized controlled trails ( Maryland Scienti fi c Methods Scale =5 ) Armstrong(2002)Participants : inmates from a county jail (N = 256).Sex : males. Age : M = 20 years (range 15 – 22). Setting : Youthful Offender Unit, county jail, Maryland, USA.Moral Reconation Therapy (n = 129), TAU (n = 127).Serious aggressive violations . Less serious aggressive violations . Criminal justice information system data andwritten records in inmate fi les.Immediatelypost-intervention.No signi fi cant differences between experiment and control groups in frequency or prevalenceof serious aggressive ( β = − 0.4966; p = 0.1299; d = − 0.126) and ( β = − 0.1664; p =0.4800; d = − 0.078) or less serious aggressive violations ( β = − 0.2366; p = 0.4562; d = − 0.019) or ( β = − 0.2479; p = 0.2934; d = − 0.108) controlling for: age, ethnicity, time incarcerated, prior arrests for violence,property, drugs or other offences.Liau et al. (2004) Participants : resident felony offenders (N = 276), without convictions for sexual offences,arson or violence ( b 3 years). Sex : 71% male, 29% female. Age : M = 29.9 years (range 18 – 61). Setting : Alvis House, a community corrections facility providing halfway housing andnon-residential programs, Midwest, USA.The psycho educational component of theEQUIP program (n = 144), comparison (n =132).Misconduct – major , severe , serious , and minor . Incident reports fi led by staff. Externalising problems . Young Adult Self-Report Form (YASR) -Problem scales.Immediatelypost-program.Participants in the EQUIP psychoeducationgroup reported signi fi cantly fewer number of serious violations compared to the controlgroup F (1,275) = 4.25, p b 0.05, ŋ = 0.015, d = 0.2484. There were not any signi fi cantdifferences in the major, severe, and minorviolation categories.For all participants, there were signi fi cantreductions in self-reported aggression scores F (1,202) = 7.59, p b 0.01, ŋ = 0.036, d = 0.3320. However, reductions did not differ based ongroup (time, group, and gender).Goldstein,Dovidio,Kalbeitzer,Weil, andStrachan(2007)Participants : inmates in a residential post-adjudication facility (N = 5).Sex : females. Age : M = 15.8 years (range 14 – 18). Setting : juvenile justice facility, USA. Anger Management for Female JuvenileOffenders (AMFJO) (n = 3), TAU control (n =2).Physical aggression . Verbal aggression . Anger . Hostility . Anger total . The Aggression Questionnaire (AQ).Verbal aggression.Indirect ( Relational ) aggression . Peer Nomination Measure for Relational andPhysical Aggression.Immediatelypost-intervention.A mixed model, repeated measures ANOVA wasconducted to examine changes in levels of angerand aggression between pre- and post-test forthe treatment and control conditions. Withrespect to anger, girls in the treatment conditionimproved from pre- to post-treatment, andgirls' anger in the control condition remainedthe same, yielding a large effect size ( d =1.4972) but not signi fi cant results ( F (1, 3) = 2.69, p = 0.20). In terms of overall aggression, girls' scores in the treatment conditionimproved while girls' scores in the controlcondition worsened, but these results were notsigni fi cant ( F (1, 3) = 3.03, p = 0.18, d = 1.589). While there were no signi fi cant main effects of either condition ( F (1, 3) = 0.25, p = 0.66, d = 0.4565) or time ( F (1, 3) = 5.51, p =0.10, d = 2.1428) on verbal aggression, there was a signi fi cant interaction between treatment condition and time ( F (1, 3) = 13.61, p = 0.04, d = 3.3677); results revealed that youth in thetreatment condition improved slightly, whileyouth in the TAU condition worsened onmeasures of verbal aggression from pre- topost-treatment.On measures of physical aggression, girls in boththe treatment and TAU control conditionsworsened from pre- to post-treatment, butfi ndings were not signi fi cant ( F (1, 3) = 0.11, p = 0.76, d = 0.3028). On measures of indirect (continued on next page)7 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 Table 2 ( continued ) Citation Participants and setting Program Outcomes and measures Follow-up period Results and effect sizes (Cohen's d )aggression (relational aggression), girls in thetreatment condition improved from pre- topost-treatment, and girls in the controlcondition worsened slightly, but these resultswere not statistically signi fi cant ( F (1, 3) = 8.09, p = 0.07, d = 2.5965). Participants in both conditions improved on measures of hostilityfrom pre- to post-treatment, but thesedifferences were not statistically signi fi cant ( F (1, 3) = 0.01, p = 0.92, d = 0.0913). Lambert, Hogan,Barton, andStevenson(2007)Participants : inmates meeting the following criteria: a) 26 years old or younger; b) pointsindicating Level V classi fi cation (i.e., high security level classi fi cation); c) no GED or high school diploma; and d) no current mentalhealth problems or issues (N = 136).Sex : males. Age : M = 20.87 years (range 17 – 26). Setting : a Midwestern prison, USA. The Cognitive Housing Approach: New GoalsEnvironment ( CHANGE ) Program (n = 68). Control (n = 68) no treatment condition. Violent misconduct . State correctional system data.3 months and 6monthspost-interventionGeneral Linear Models showed thatparticipating in the CHANGE program had notstatistically signi fi cant effect on of fi cial violent misconduct reports received either threemonths F (3) = 2.94, p b 0.06, d = 0.2941 or six months after the completion of the program F (5) = 2.69, p b 0.10, d = 0.2813. Hogan, Lambert,andBarton-Bellessa(2012)Participants : medium or maximum security inmates drawn from the entire statecorrectional system meeting the followingcriteria: a) under the age of 26; b) pointsindicating Level V classi fi cation (i.e., high security level classi fi cation); c) no serious of deadly assaultive misconducts; and d) nocurrent mental health problems or issues (N =213).Sex : males. Age : M = 20.87 years. Setting : high level security Midwestern prison, USA.The Cognitive Housing Approach: New GoalsEnvironment ( CHANGE ) Program (n = 122). Control (n = 91) no treatment condition.Violent misconduct . State correctional system data.3 months and 6monthspost-interventionUnivariate analysis using the general linearmodel was conducted. Participating in theCHANGE program had no statistically signi fi canteffect on of fi cial misconduct reports received either 3 ( F = 0.25; p = ns, d = 0.0693) or 6 months ( F = 1.53; p = ns, d = 1.53) after the completion of the program. Multivariateanalyses were conducted. CHANGE inmateswere lower in the number of violent misconductreports 3 months ( β = 0.18; p b 0.01), and 6 months after the program ( β = 0.78; p ≤ 0.01), even after controlling for weeks in the program,number of violent misconduct reports 3 or 6months prior to the program, and the number ofviolent misconduct reports during the program.Non-randomized quasi-experiments ( Maryland Scienti fi c Methods Scale =3 ) Miller (1996) Participants: inmates with absence of major mental disorder and a literacy standardsuf fi cient for the written homework (N = 15). Sex : males. Age : M = 29 years (range 21 – 46). Setting : Barwon Prison, Victoria, Australia. The Alternatives to Violence Project (n = 7). Comparison (n = 8). Undertaking education courses.Expression of angry feelings toward otherpersons or objects (Anger Expression-Out). A subscale of the State-Trait Anger ExpressionInventory (STAXI).Upon programcompletion and 3monthspost-program.Anger Out showed change in the predicteddirection (decrease), but failed to achievesigni fi cance.Morrissey (1997) Participants : juvenile offenders who have committed very serious crimes against theperson or chronic offenders (N = 77).Sex : males. Age : M = 16 years, 4 months. Setting : Worcester Juvenile Secure Treatment Unit, Massachusetts, USA.A multimodal treatment approach that utilisesa broad range of behavioural,cognitive-behavioural, and psychological skillstraining methods (n = 41). TAU (n = 36)different regime relying on room con fi nementfrom 2 – 24 hr, staff discretionary points system, fewer (problem-speci fi c)interventions, less rewards for appropriatebehaviour.Violent incidents, assaults on residents,assaults on staff . Incidents reports fi led by staff, Program Director's monthly reports.Immediatelypost-intervention.When behaviours from Group A were comparedto Group B by means of a t -test, signi fi cant differences were found for violent incidents ( t = 2.36; p = b 0.05; d = 0.539), assaults on residents ( t = 2.43; p = b 0.05; d = 0.555), and assaults on staff ( t = 2.43; p = b 0.05; d = 0.555).Baro (1999) Participants : inmates from a prison. (N = 123). Sex : males. Age : M = no data. Setting : Michigan Reformatory, Iona, Michigan, USA.Strategies for Thinking Productively (STP)Phase I (n = 41), Phase II (n = 41), TAU; otherself-help programs (n = 41).Assaults . (Assault and battery of another prisoner,staff member, or another person). Data werecollected from inmate fi les, program records, and the state-wide Michigan Department ofCorrections computerized information1 year afterprogramcompletion.Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed signi fi cantdifferences between the groups with regard toassaults ( X 2(2, 123) = 6.354, p = 0.42). The difference is assaults comes from the STP PhaseII group ( d = − 0.4502). Whereas the number of assaults in the “ Other ” and the STP Phase I 8 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 system. groups were 21 and 20, inmates in the STPPhase II group committed only 6 assaults ( d =− 0.0223). Data were transformed into ordinal levels ofmisconduct. 88% of those in the STP Phase IIgroup spear not to have committed any assaultsduring the follow-up year. By comparison, 75%of those in the “ Other ” group and 63% of those in the STP Phase I group did not commit assaults.Gamma test results were signi fi cant ( p b 0.05). ( ϒ = − 0.283, SE = 0.138, p b 0.53). Watt andHowells(1999) . Study 1.Participants : inmates with a history of violent offending (N = 31).Sex: males. Age : M = 26.84 years. Setting : a maximum and minimum security prison, Perth, Western Australia.The Skills Training for Aggression Control(STAC) (n = 18), TAU (n = 13).Self-reported Anger Behaviour . Measured using the revised NAS.Immediatelypost-program.2 × 2 split plot ANOVAs (SPANOVAs) wereconducted on the NAS scales with time (pre-testand post-test) and condition experimental andcontrol) as the independent variables. An alphalevel of 0.01 was employed to reducefamily-wise error. For the NAS, the onlysigni fi cant main effect was for condition on the NAS Behavioural Scale ( F (1, 27) = 7.46, p = 0.01, d = 0.9941), which indicated that the experimental group reported signi fi cantlyhigher behavioural reaction to provocation thanthe control group independent of time.Watt andHowells(1999) . Study 2.Participants : inmates with a history of violent offending (N = 38).Sex : males. Age : M = 28.76 years. Setting : a maximum and minimum security prison, Perth, Western Australia.The Skills Training for Aggression Control(STAC) (n = 19), TAU (n = 19).Self - reported Anger Behaviour . Measured using the NAS-M.Aggressive behaviour . Modi fi ed Overt Aggression Scale (MOAS). Immediatelypost-program.Results tended to indicate signi fi cant main effects for trait anger, with high trait angerparticipants reporting more angry behaviour ( p = 0.0002) on the NAS – M( d = 0.0602). Comparisons between experimental and controlgroups on aggression measured by the MOASand frequency of incident reports indicated nosigni fi cant effects on the behavioural measures. This appeared owing to the low frequency ofincidents on both measures.Prendergast,Farabee, andCartier (2001)Participants : inmates with a history of substance abuse, with 6 – 18 months left to serve, no infractions for violence or weapons, not amember of a prison gang, no pending felonies,no immigration and naturalisation holds (N =no data).Sex : males. Age : M = no data. Setting : California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility and State Prison, Corcoran, USA.California Substance Abuse Treatment Facility– Substance Abuse Program (SATF-SAP) (n = no data), TAU (n = no data).Violence or the threat of violence . California Department of Corrections ruleviolations (115s).Throughout 12month treatmentperiod(immediatelypost-program).Over the twelve-months combined, thepercentage of serious disciplinary actions in thetreatment facilities was somewhat lower thanthat in the non-treatment facilities (73.2% and79.3%, respectively).Walrath (2001) Participants : inmates serving sentences of 3 months or longer (N = 94).Sex : males. Age : M = 30 years (range 18 – 51). Setting : medium-security corrections facility in Maryland, USA.The Alternatives to Violence Project (n = 53). Comparison (n = 41). Violent confrontations . Self-report 10-item questionnaire. Frequency of involvement inlast month.6 monthspost-interventionPoisson Regressions were used to assess theimpact of the intervention for the AVP group ascompared to the non-AVP group at 6-monthfollow-up, controlling for baselinecharacteristics. The incident rate ratio for thenumber of confrontations at 6 monthspost-intervention, controlling for the number ofconfrontations pre-intervention, was 0.432, p b 0.0005 (CI = 0.319 to 0.583). In other words,the AVP group reported 0.43 times (fewer thanone half) the number of confrontations reportedby those who did not receive the intervention,controlling for age, pre-test confrontation score,type of sentence, and length of sentence. Theincident rate ratio for number of(continued on next page)9 K.M. Auty et al. / Aggres sion and Violen t Behavior xxx (2 017) xxx – xxx Please cite this articl e as: Auty, K. M., et al., Psy choeduca tional pro grams for redu cing priso n violence: A systema tic review, Ag gressio n and Violent Behavior (2 017), http: //dx.doi. org/10.1 016/j.avb .2017.01 .018 Table 2 ( continued ) Citation Participants and setting Program Outcomes and measures Follow-up period Results and effect sizes (Cohen's d )post-intervention confrontations turned violentdid not reach signi fi cance.Evershed et al.(2003)Participants : forensic patients who met the criteria for borderline personality disorder,none were experiencing symptoms of mentalillness (BPD) (N = 17).Sex : males. Age : M = 34.76 years (range 21 – 52). Setting : personality disorder service in a high security hospital, UK.Dialectical Behavioural Therapy (DBT)targeting anger and violence (n = 8).Comparison group (n = 8) treatment as usual(TAU).Violent observed behaviours ( frequency and seriousness ). Blindly rated by an independent psychologystudent.9 monthspost-treatment.The frequency of violence-related behaviour forboth groups decreased over time but nosigni fi cant differences were evident. On the seriousness of violence-related behaviours,ANOVA revealed an interaction effect ( F = 8.05, p b 0.00, d = 1.4186) with the DBT group engaging in less serious behaviour than the TAUgroup initially ( F = 6.45, p = 0.024, d = 1.2698), at the mid assessment phase ( F =10.21, p = 0.0006, d = 1.5977), and post treatment ( F = 43.99, p = 0.000, d = 3.3162). Dietz et al.(2003)Participants : inmates from an in-prison TC, at least 18 years old, a history of drug/alcoholabuse, mental health clearance, no convictionsfor sexual offences or pending disciplinaryactions. (N = 774).Sex : males. Age : M = 36.6 years. Setting : medium/high-security prison, Delaware, US.KEY South TC (n = 118), non-treatment group(n = 656).Institutional disorder . Incident reports (122s), Class 1 violations(assault or sexual misconduct).Throughout12-yeartreatment period(immediatelypost-program)The observed differences between thetreatment and nontreatment units in violentinfractions were signi fi cant ( p b 0.001). Lee and Gilligan(2005)Participants : inmates assigned to one of two open dormitories, most with a history ofviolence (N = 105).Sex : males. Age : M = 30.4 years (range 19 – 54). Setting : San Francisco County Jail, USA. Resolve to stop the Violence Project (RSVP) (n= 52). Comparison group (n = 53).Violent incidents . Sheriff's Department Records.15 monthspost-programinception.A two-tailed t -test was performed to assess the difference in in-custody overall and violentincident rates.The programme dorm had a violent incidentrate of 3.6% of the control dorm (T = − 3.17; p b 0.05; d = − 0.6187)Welsh, McGrain,Salamatin, andZajac (2007)Participants : inmates with a high need for a drug treatment program (N = 1073).Sex : males. Age : M = no data. Setting : fi ve medium and Maximum security Pennsylvania state prisons, USA.TC drug treatment (n = 294), comparison (n= 779).Violent misconduct . Class A incidents ( assault , murder , rape ) Data were obtained from the Department ofCorrections (DOC) Misconduct Database.6 monthspost-program.Generalized linear modelling (GLM) repeatedmeasures techniques (split-plot ormixed-model repeated measures approachused).Class A (most serious) Misconduct: Signi fi cantbetween-participants predictors included age(younger inmates), prior offence severity (moreserious criminal history), number of monthsincarcerated pretreatment (more time, highermisconduct), number of months incarceratedposttreatment (more time, higher misconduct),and participation in the TC group (lowermisconduct). The TC effect remained strong andsigni fi cant even when controlling for other relevant predictors of misconduct ( F = 13.90, p b 0.05, ŋ = 0.097). Serin et al.(2009)Participants: inmates with a history of violence. Sex : males. Age : no data. Setting : Dorchester Institution, New Brunswick or Collins Bay Institution, Ontario, Canada.The Persistently Violent Offender Program(PVO) (n = 70), met referral criterson-list-item__meta" data-reactid="53">
  188. 14.82
  189. University of Cambridge
  190. Aiden Cope
  191. Alison Liebling
  192. AbstractInstitutional violence presents significant challenges to the accomplishment of legitimate social order in prison. This systematic review examines the effect of psychoeducational programs on violent behaviour in prison. Comprehensive searches of the empirical research literature were conducted to identify randomized and non-randomized studies carried out in the last two decades (1996–2016) that compared psychoeducational programs with treatment as usual (TAU). The content of programs was analysed and classified. The design of the studies was subject to a risk of bias analysis and quality assessment. Violent behaviour in prison was measured by institutional reports, inmate self-reports, observer ratings, or using psychometrically-valid scales. We identified 21 separate studies with considerable variations in program quality and evaluation methodology. The majority of programs adopted a cognitive behavioural or social learning approach. There was limited evidence for the efficacy of these programs, although highly-structured programs showed the most promise. Programs that aimed to integrate their treatment ethos into the institutional regime and target specific criminogenic risks also produced evidence of effectiveness in reducing institutional violence. The current evidence base does not provide a clear answer to the ‘what works’ question in reducing institutional violence. However, there is evidence that some approaches are more successful than others and this should guide future program design and evaluation.

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    Join for free Psychoedu cational pro grams for reduc ing prison viol ence: Asystemati c reviewKatherin e M. Auty ⁎ , Aiden Co pe, Alison L iebling Prisons Rese arch Centre , Institut e of Criminol ogy, Cambr idge Univer sity, Englan d, United Ki ngdomabstract article info Article his tory:Received 1 1 August 2016Received in revi sed form 17 January 20 17Accepted 18 Ja nuary 2017Available o nline xxxxInstituti onal violen ce present s signi fi cant ch allenges to the acco mplishme nt of legitimate so cial order in priso n. This systemat ic review examin es the effect of psyc hoeducatio nal program s on violent behavi our in prison. Co m-prehensive searches of th e empirical research liter ature were conducted to iden tify randomized and non-r an-domized studies carri ed out in the last two decades (1996 – 2016) that compared psycho educational progr ams with treatment as usua l (TAU). The content of pr ograms was analysed an d classi fi ed. The desi gn of the studies was subject to a ris k of bias analysi s and quality ass essment. Vio lent behavio ur in prison was mea sured by insti-tutional reports , inmate self-re ports, observer ra tings, or using ps ychometrically-v alid scales. We id enti fi ed 21 separate studies with consi derable variatio ns in program quality and evaluati on methodology. The majo rity ofprograms a dopted a cogn itive behavi oural or so cial learnin g approach.There was limited evid ence for the ef fi ca- cy of these progra ms, althoug h highly-stru ctured progra ms showed the most promise. Pro grams that aime d tointegrat e their treat ment ethos int o the instit utional regi me and targe t speci fi c crimi nogenic ris ks also produce d evidence of effect iveness in reducing in stitutional vi olence. The current ev idence base does not pro vide a clearanswer to the ‘ what works ’ ques tion in reduc ing instit utional vio lence. How ever, there is eviden ce that some a p- proaches ar e more success ful than other s and this shoul d guide futur e program des ign and evalua tion.© 2017 Elsevier Lt d. All rights re served.Keywords:Institut ional violen cePrisonsPhysical a ssaultsVerbal ass aultsSocial orderIntervent ionEffectiv eness1. Introdu ctionViolence is a pervas ive featu re of the soci al contex t of prison l ife, yetas Bottoms (1999) points out, its s tudy presen ts a parad ox, as the pri son environm ent is expe rienced on a d ay to day basi s by prisoner s and staffas relative ly safe. Viol ence in prison s impacts negat ively on the de liveryof a consist ent daily regime and the refore und ermines e fforts to p rovideprograms, education an d work activities for inmates as we ll as posingdirect risks. In this sense, efforts to reduce prison violence are crucialto the maintenance of everyday social order. Following Ga don, Johnstone, and Co oke (2006a, p. 515) ,w ed e fi ne institutiona l violence as “ the actual, attempted or thre atened harm towards anoth er person within the institu tional setting which may in clude physical, verbaland/or sexual aggr ession. ” Accu rately measur ing instituti onal violence poses several problems: institutional record keeping can vary widelyand although most in stitutions now use comput erized systems, thisdata often comes from in dividual prisoner fi les maintain ed on reside n- tial units. Fu rthermore, it i s reasonable to as sume that a degre e of staffdiscretion appl